Cleaning sewage city or town utilities, industrial and agricultural technology is a difficult and methodical task. The state and behavior of various impurities in the aquatic environment are not only in their chemical nature and particle sizes, as well as the ability to form with water or monotonous (heterogeneous) mixture or system. Therefore, removal of any contaminants requires in each case individual approach.
Wastewater treatment according to currently known technologies is not only difficult but also economically disadvantageous. All equipment for these technologies is large, bulky, require large capital investments in the construction and energy consumption during operation, but in most cases does not provide reliable treatment of wastewater. In addition to the large capital expenditures required substantial expenditures on the operation of such structures is the maintenance staff, equipment maintenance, energy consumption, etc.This causes difficulty with the placement of treatment facilities in remote locations, e.g., on the issues of drains into water bodies outside the locations of bridge crossings. In addition, the appearance of these structures, sumps, pumping stations, industrial buildings – does not fit into modern architectural and natural landscape.
The proposal, first developed for the purification of sewage water in countries with constant or seasonal hot climate. Purification takes place in three stages with the end result suitable for reuse.
The essence of the proposal in the first stage of works consists in the intensification of the purifying ability of biogenic activity culture of higher aquatic plants, which is practically the full analogue of the natural process of self-purification of water bodies. To solve this problem we propose the use of (water hyacinth).
Able to lighten, deodorize waste water, cause the death of E. coli, Salmonella, etc. of pathogenic bacteria, absorb compounds of nutrients, to accelerate the process of nitrification, mineralizing oil and neutralize many toxins. Botanical name Eichornia speciosa, Pontenderia crassipes, eyhorniya (water hyacinth). Herbaceous floating plant. Typical hydropic. A surface part of a short stem with a rosette of oval leaves. The petioles are swollen vesicular. Filling the air that provides high buoyancy.The root system is in the water in the form of a well-developed bundle of threadlike roots, densely covered with cilia Possesses under the right conditions significant rate of growth and adaptive capabilities. In places where forms by layering individuals and local continuous weedy areas that intensificare approximation wastewater to the natural quality and reducing their harmful impact on the ecology of the environment, enhances the effectiveness of the degeneration of aquatic ecosystems (water is in a state of self-purification – that is, using natural biocenosis).Feature properties that this plant oxidizes and breaks down the impurities of water into simple elements with great speed and absorbs them as nutrition. The role of the oxidant performs the oxygen in excess is produced by the plant.
It is well known that most of chemical elements in the effluent are in the joints. Transpiration of plants increases with increasing temperature of the wastewater and the ambient air and contributes to the growth and intensity of reproduction of plants, which further increases the extraction of nutrients for them substances from the treated effluent.
This “weed” (name of encyclopedia) under natural conditions lives in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Grows in an upright and
flowing waters. Including the waters of the sacred Ganges. The great river is renowned for its purity, despite the heavy polluting runoff from cities and numerous villages. The cleaning technology with it based on the extremely high ability of plants to reproduce and intensive growth of its vegetative mass. The activity of the vegetative processes in plants increases with increasing temperature, nutrient concentration, light conditions and photoperiod. The presence in water of organic substances is characteristic of the wastewater, which increases the productivity .At the same time has a number of shortcomings that limit its application. It is heat-loving and is killed already at +8*C. It requires a long photoperiod and high humidity.
In small towns, villages, animal farms and private farms engineering wastewater treatment plants to build because of the high capital and operating costs is not cost-effective. Collecting effluents without any treatment is discharged into the drain holes or natural depressions, where the fall in the aquifers or rivers discharged into the sea.Bacterial contamination of water in hot climates or summer of undeveloped system of water supply and sanitation worsens sanitary-epidemiological situation in the settlements and poses a real threat to the ecology of the region, provoking outbreaks of infectious intestinal diseases.
Center for sapropel offers comprehensive technology solutions and equipment small wastewater sewage for medium and small urban areas, villages, resort hotels and tourist bases, farms, livestock and poultry farms, nuclear power plants, mining and processing enterprises, car washes, oil refineries, etc.They are in the process based on the use of special types of water hyacinth or the so-called , for the decomposition into components of all the known contaminants of water, peat and sapropel sorbent for the decomposition of the organic component of soil water, suppression of odors, sludge thickening and neutral water clarifier, used to purify it from the harmful trace contaminants of chemical and organic origin, heavy metals and radionuclides.
The technology uses water hyacinth of a special sort. Is grown, propagated and delivered us to the object of cleaning for the first phase of the tasks. Is a warm water plant with a fairly high speed absorbs, oxidizes and breaks down into component chemicals, ammonia, phenols, sulphides, phosphates, manure, feces, salts of heavy metals, radionuclides, gasoline, fuel, any petroleum products, surfactants, pesticides, rocket fuel.
Growing accumulation of feces, harmful contaminants, water hyacinth extracts of effluent nitrogen, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, mineral salts, pesticides, industrial oils, tannins, manganese, sulfur, phenol (up to 540 g/l), sulphates, petroleum, iron, Nickel, mercury, washing powder, soap, etc. Living in it bacteria-symbionts (chemotrophic and phototrophic) due to the presence of hydrogenases actively accumulate metal ions of Nickel, ruthenium, arsenic, palladium and restore them to the metallic state.The cleaning water from tritium, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead.
The dissolved oxygen content in the water increases after purification with 0.1 to 2.4 mg/l biochemical oxygen demand increased from 9 to 27 mg/l. produces oxygen water hyacinth breaks down chemical pollutants, improves the quality of the treated flow indicators BOD (from 150 to 20-30 mg / l), COD (from 300 to 25-30 mg\l) and suspended solids. One of the main advantages when this treatment is destroyed E. coli, normal Coli-index of ecosystems are excluded in the processes of decay in storage and suppressed the livelihood of the larvae of blood-sucking insects.
The most favorable for the occurrence of open biotechnological process for the treatment of waste sewage Eichhorn is the location of the complex pollution control equipment in a hot climate (from +18*C) and warm water (+22*C). At lower temperatures and at least +8*water hyacinth slows their growth and their ability of wastewater treatment and completely dies. In this regard, we have developed open and closed complexes wastewater treatment with different performance for different climatic conditions.